The Science behind and mode of action of
Perfect Beauty Life® Sun – Prepare your skin for the sun
– Scientific Summary –
Exposure to sunlight can be enjoyable, but too much sunlight can be dangerous to the skin. Overexposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause immediate effects such as sunburn and long-term problems with the skin. They penetrate deep into the skin and damage cells. These cells are then at risk of becoming cancerous. You can’t feel UV damaging your skin and this happens even if the sun doesn’t feel hot. UV light is also an external oxidative stressor on the skin, and the level of generated free radicals depends on the UV dose. Sunlight consists of two types of UV radiation: UVA and UVB. Both radiation types contribute to freckling, skin wrinkling and the development of skin cancer.
Perfect Beauty Life® Sun is a particular combination of ingredients such as argan oil, astaxanthin, grape-seed extract and the specially designed Lycolignol®-Complex. Vitamin C and E, zinc, copper and biotin complete the formulation to protect the skin from sun damage.
Lycolignol®-Complex is a unique, high-quality blend of three ingredients. It combines special grades of flax-seed extract, green-tea extract, and also lycopene rich-tomato extract. This specially designed blend has been tested positive in a human clinical study. The antioxidant properties of the ingredients take care of the skin and help to catch the free radicals of the sun.
Over the last 15 years, cosmetic argan oil, used either as a beauty oil or cosmetic ingredient, has become one of the most important substances in the dermo-cosmetic field.3
Traditionally, argan oil is well known for its treatment of skin infections. Argan oil is principally composed of mono-unsaturated (up to 80%) and saturated (up to 20%) fatty acids. As minor components, it contains polyphenols, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and triterpene alcohols. Together with the mono-unsaturated fatty acids, these minor components are probably responsible for its beneficial effects.2 Remarkable properties of argan oil as evaluated by numerous laboratories are the restoration of the skin’s water-lipid layer and an increase in nutrients in the skin cells, moreover the stimulation of intracellular oxygen, the neutralization of free radicals and protection of the conjunctive tissue.1
Skin ageing, a combination of natural and environmentally induced processes, is predominantly caused by UV light from the sun. The results of the action of these UV rays are in seen in characteristic tissue alterations such as the degradation of collagen, the formation of visible fine lines and wrinkles4. They can also cause premature aging of the skin, dry skin, age spots and freckles. By preventing UV damage, skin can be protected from these conditions. And there is evidence that natural astaxanthin not only prevents UV damage from occurring, but may actually also help to reverse these external signs of ageing from the inside out.
Astaxanthin is an effective internal sunscreen that protects the skin from damage caused by exposure to UV light. This has been demonstrated in vitro in animal models as well as in a human clinical trials. In addition to its protective properties, there is evidence that astaxanthin may have curative properties for the skin and serve as an internal beauty supplement. It certainly appears that Astaxanthin has great potential as a sun supplement.5
Two human clinical studies were performed to show the cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on human subjects. One was an open-label, non-controlled study involving 30 healthy female subjects for 8 weeks. Significant improvements were observed with oral supplementation and also topical application of astaxanthin. It showed improvements in regard to skin wrinkling, age-spot size, elasticity, skin texture, moisture content of the corneocyte layer and comeocyte condition. This may indicate that astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis can improve skin condition in all layers, such as the corneocyte layer, epidermis, basal layer and dermis, by combining oral supplementation and topical treatment. Another randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 36 healthy male subjects for 6 weeks was performed. Crow’s feet wrinkles and elasticity, and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) were improved after daily supplementation. Moisture content and sebum oil levels at the cheek zone showed strong tendencies to improve. These results suggest that astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis may improve skin condition not only in women but also in men.6
The ultimate aim of protecting the skin against damage from sunlight is to prevent the consequences of the effects of UV radiation, such as oxidative stress. Providing antioxidants to the superficial skin layers by supplementation with nutrients may support the skin’s defenses, thereby protecting it against the harmful effects of UV light.7
Grapes – or the chemicals contained within them, especially the well-known oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs) – have long been considered as powerful antioxidants.8
OPCs are phytonutrients that belong to the polyphenol family of antioxidants and possess a high free-radical-scavenging activity. OPCs have also been shown to protect collagen and elastin from degradation by collagenases and elastases. The anti-inflammatory, antiallergicand anti-ageing properties attributed to OPCs are of particular interest in dermatology.7
A cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin C and normal collagen formation. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Vitamin C contributes to normal collagen formation and the normal function of skin.” 9
Vitamin C functions physiologically as a water-soluble antioxidant and plays a major role as free-radical scavenger (Sadler et al., 1999; IoM, 2000). It is part of the antioxidant defense system, which is a complex network including endogenous and dietary antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes and repair mechanisms, with mutual interactions and synergetic effects between the various components. The EFSA concludes that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin C and the protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage.9
Vitamin E is also part of the antioxidant defense system, which is a complex network including both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes and repair mechanisms, with mutual interactions and synergetic effects among the various components. (Shils et al., 2006; IoM 2000). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids if they are not intercepted by the antioxidant network, which includes free-radical scavengers such as antioxidant nutrients. The EFSA points out that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin E and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Vitamin E contributes to the protection of cell constituents from oxidative damage”.10
Zinc plays an essential structural, regulatory or catalytic role in many enzymes, and maintains the configuration of a number of non-enzymatic proteins. It also facilitates hormone and receptor binding at membrane and nuclear levels, and contributes to the integrity of biomembranes. Consequently, zinc participates in gene expression and in the mechanism and control of major metabolic pathways involving proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids (SCF, 1993; DoH, 1991). Human zinc-deficiency symptoms include skin lesions such as changes in the regeneration of the skin (SCF, 2003; EVM, 2002, Cousins, 2006). The EFSA concludes that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of zinc and the maintenance of normal skin. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Zinc contributes to the maintenance of normal skin” 11, and “Zinc contributes to the protection of cell constituents from oxidative damage”.12
Symptoms of severe copper deficiency include lack of collagen maturation. Copper is a cofactor of an extracellular enzyme called lysyl oxidase (LO), which is critical to the formation and functioning of connective tissue. The reaction of oxidative deamination of specific lysine residues in the extracellular matrix initiates the formation of cross-links that stabilize newly formed elastin and collagen (Linder and Hazegh-Azam, 1996).
The role of copper in the pigmentation of skin is related to the requirement of cuproenzyme tyrosinase (monophenol oxidase) for melanin synthesis. Mutational loss of this catalytic function leads to albinism (Arredondo and Nunez, 2005; Linder, 1991). The EFSA considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Copper contributes to normal skin and hair pigmentation”.13
Symptoms of biotin deficiency include a scaly (seborrheic), red (eczematous) skin which is reversible by administration of biotin (Mock, 2005). There is evidence that impaired fatty-acid metabolism secondary to reduced activities of the biotin-dependent carboxylases (especially acetyl CoA carboxylase) plays an aetiological role in the dermatological manifestation of biotin deficiency (Mock, 1991). The EFSA concludes that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of biotin and maintenance of normal skin and mucous membranes. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Biotin contributes to the maintenance of normal skin and mucous membranes.” 14
Based on the scientific data and the clinical studies for the active ingredients used in Perfect Beauty Life® Sun, in combination with the clinical study conducted with the Lycolignol®-Complex contained in Perfect Beauty Life® Anti Aging, the conclusion can be drawn that Perfect Beauty Life® Sun helps to prepare the skin for exposure to sunlight, promoting a healthy skin from within and providing protection against antioxidants.
Author: Dr. Marc Schneider (Head of Business Development); firstname.lastname@example.org
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- Argan oil: from nutrition to health; A. Adlouni; Phytothérapie (2010) 8: 89–97
- Therapeutic potential of argan oil: a review; Hanae El Monfaloutia,b, Dom Guillaumea, Clément Denheza and Zoubida Charroufb; Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2010, 62: 1669–1675
- Argan oil and other argan products: Use in dermocosmetology; Dominique Guillaume and Zoubida Charrouf; Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2011, 113, 403–408
- A novel micronutrient supplement in skin aging: a randomized placebo-controlled doubleblind study; Alain Béguin; Skin Testing Department, Intercosmetica Neuchâtel SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
- Natural Astaxanthin: King of the Carotenoids; Bob Capelli with Dr. Gerald Cysewski; Copyright 2007 by Cyanotech Corporation; ISBN-13: 978-0-9792353-0-6
- Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects; Kumi Tominaga, Nobuko Hongo, Mariko Karato and Eiji Yamashita; Biochimica Polonia; Vol. 59, No 1 /2012 43-47
- Anti-Inflammatory and Skin-Hydrating Properties of a Dietary Supplement and Topical Formulations Containing Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins; B. Hughes-Formella O. Wunderlich R. Williams; Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2007;20:43–49
- Therapeutic Pragmatism of Grape Fruit; Raaz K Maheshwari, Upma Singh, Nidhi Gauba Dhawan, Itishri Bhati, Bina Rani; Int. J. Chem. Pharm. Sci. 2013,Vol.1(3) 237 – 242
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