The Science behind and mode of action of
Perfect Beauty Life® Cellular – Strengthen your skin structure
– Scientific Summary –
The term “cellulite” refers to the dimpled appearance of the skin that some people have on their hips, thighs, and buttocks. Cellulite is also called “orange-peel” or “cottage cheese” skin. This appearance is much more common in women than in men because of differences in the way fat, muscle, and connective tissue are distributed under men’s and women’s skin. Cellulite is a complex disorder involving the micro-circulatory and lymphatic systems, the extracellular matrix and the presence of excess subcutaneous fat that bulges into the dermis which is caused by fat deposits that push and distort the connective tissues beneath skin, leading to the characteristic changes in the appearance of the skin.
Perfect Beauty Cellular is a particular combination of ingredients such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), caffeine, L-Carnitine and the specially designed Lycolignol® – Complex. In addition, vitamin C and E, chromium, copper and manganese complement this formulation to support the skin with ingredients that can reduce cellulite.
The Lycolignol® -Complex is a unique, high-quality blend of three ingredients. It combines special grades of flaxseed extract, green-tea extract, and also lycopenerich tomato extract. This specially designed blend has been tested positive in a human clinical study. The antioxidant properties of the ingredients improve the condition and firmness of the skin, and are believed to catch free radicals.
Conjugated linoleic acid
In a human study, Birnbaum et al. 2001 compared the effects of a herbal anti-cellulite pill with increasing concentrations of CLA over 60 days. These treatments had a beneficial effect on thigh-circumference reduction in 75% of the women. It demonstrated improvements in thigh cellulite appearance and reductions in thigh circumference measurements on completion of the study. Improvements in microcirculatory patterns were also observed. Although no further studies with CLA have been conducted especially on cellulite, CLA has repeatedly been shown to reduce body fat mass in obese individuals with a corresponding increase in lean body mass (A. V. Rawlings; 2006; Lawrence Birnbaum, 2001).
The way in which CLA improves body composition is still under investigation, but several mechanisms have been proposed. CLA is known to influence many of the enzymes involved in fat metabolism, e.g. lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid binding protein. In addition, CLA has been shown not only to modify fat metabolism, but also adipocyte growth and differentiation, therefore modifying the exact site of fat storage. Such modification of many processes leading to an overall reduction in fat storage, and ultimately fat mass, is thought to be the result of CLA acting as an agonist to certain nuclear transcription factors that control all of these processes. At the same time, CLA increases the activity of an enzyme that increases the breakdown of fats. The storage of fat is therefore reduced, fat is burned at a higher rate, and less muscle tissue is broken down for energy during a catabolic state. This leads to a reduction in fat mass and an increase in lean muscle mass. A recent study found that daily consumption of CLA significantly reduces fat mass, mostly in the legs (Scientific Background Information on Clarinol™).
Extracts from coffee have a wide spectrum of action and are used in many kinds of cos-metics. Caffeine stimulates the metabolism, contributes to the removal of deposits of toxins from the organism, reduces puffy eyes, accelerates the drainage of the lymph system from fatty tissue, improves the microcirculation of the blood in the capillary vessels, exhibits anti-cellulite properties, activates lipolysis, and releases excess fat from adipocyte cells by reducing their size (A. Herman, A.P. Herman, 2013).
As for its cosmetic applications, caffeine is used as an active compound in anticellulite products because it prevents excessive accumulation of fat in cells. This alkaloid stimulates the degradation of fats during lipolysis through inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity. Caffeine also has potent antioxidant properties. Furthermore, caffeine contained in cosmetics increases the microcirculation of blood in the skin, and also stimulates the growth of hair through inhibition of 5-α -reductase activity. The study performed by Lupi et al. 2007 showed that an oral intake facilitated a reduction in cellulite and improved the microcirculatory blood flow in all women taking part in this clinical study (A. Herman, A.P. Herman, 2013).
Carnitine is found in almost all of your body’s cells. It plays a crucial role in helping the fat metabolism. L-carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membranes in the mitochondria, where they are processed by betaoxidation to produce biological energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. In this way, fat is used as an energy source. In addition, L-carnitine transports toxic compounds out of the mitochondria to prevent accumulation. The effectiveness of carnitine has been demonstrated in various human studies (R. Roure et al. 2011).
One of these studies demonstrates the efficacy of an active product combining Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPB), caffeine, carnitine, forskolin and retinol to combat cellulite. It demonstrates the mechanism of action of the active ingredients. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study demonstrated the clinical interest of this new combination of actives. After 12 weeks of twice-daily intake, the centimetric reductions were significant vs. the baseline in all the body areas studied (arm, abdomen, thighs, hips-buttocks and waist). Orange peel and stubborn cellulite grading were significantly reduced as well. lt was observed that the skin tonicity and stubbom cellulite were improved mostly on the buttocks compared with the other tested areas. This may be explained by a more severe state at baseline. On the contrary, changes observed in the orange peel aspect were consistent between the four areas during the whole study and between the different time points. After 12 weeks of treatment compared with placebo, the anticellulite product significantly improved skin condition in eight parameters of the thirteen evaluated (R. Roure et al. 2011).
A cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin C and normal collagen formation. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Vitamin C contributes to normal collagen formation and the normal function of skin” (EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1226).
Vitamin C functions physiologically as a water-soluble antioxidant and plays a major role as a free-radical scavenger (Sadler et al., 1999; IoM, 2000). It is part of the antioxidant defence system, which is a complex network including endogenous and dietary antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes and repair mechanisms, with mutual interactions and synergetic effects between the various components. The EFSA concludes that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin C and the protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1226).
Vitamin E is also part of the antioxidant defence system, which is a complex network in-cluding both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes and repair mechanisms, with mutual interactions and synergetic effects among the various components. (Shils et al., 2006; IoM 2000). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids if they are not intercepted by the antioxidant network, which includes free-radical scavengers such as antioxidant nutrients. The EFSA points out that a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin E and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Vitamin E contributes to the protection of cell constituents from oxidative damage” (EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1816).
Chromium depletion that responds to chromium supplementation has been reported in humans receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with TPN solutions low in or free of chromium. Jeejeebhoy et al. (1977) reported on a female receiving longterm parenteral nutrition for three and a half years, who exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and glucose utilisation, weight loss, neuropathy, elevated plasma fatty acids, depressed respiratory quotient and abnormalities in nitrogen metabolism. A patient receiving total parenteral nutrition low in chromium for five months after complete bowel resection developed severe glucose intolerance, weight loss and a metabolic encephalopathy-like confusional state (Freund et al., 1979). Hyperglycaemia is a common feature of chromium depletion in humans. It can be reversed by the administration of chromium (Jeejeebhoy et al., 1977; Freund et al., 1979; Brown et al., 1986; SCF, 1993; IoM, 2001; EVM, 2002). The EFSA considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Chromium contributes to the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels” (EFSA Journal 2010:8(10):1732).
Symptoms of severe copper deficiency include lack of collagen maturation. Copper is a cofactor of an extracellular enzyme called lysyl oxidase, which is critical to the formation and functioning of connective tissue. The reaction of oxidative deamination of specific lysine residues in the extracellular matrix initiates the formation of cross-links that stabilize newly formed elastin and collagen (Linder and Hazegh-Azam, 1996).
The role of copper in the pigmentation of skin is related to the requirement of cuproenzyme tyrosinase (monophenol oxidase) for melanin synthesis. Mutational loss of this catalytic function for example leads to albinism (Arredondo and Nunez, 2005; Linder, 1991). The EFSA considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Copper contributes to normal skin and hair pigmentation” (EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1211).
Manganese is essential as a co-factor for the metalloenzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase, arginase, galactosyltransferase and pyruvate carboxylase. Manganese also activates a number of other enzymes such as various decarboxylases, hydrolases, kinases and transferases, for example glycolsyltranferases, and glutamine synthetase. Manganese is not essential for the activity of most of these enzyme systems, which can also be activated by other metals, with the exception of glycosyltransferases (JHCI, 2003; Buchman, 2006). Manganese deficiency interferes with normal skeletal development in various animal species (Combs et al., 1942; Leach and Muenster, 1962; Tsai and Everson, 1967). Glycosyltranferases and xylosyltransferases are important for proteoglycan synthesis and thus the formation of connective tissue, including that in bone and cartilage, and these enzymes are sensitive to manganese intake and status in animals (JHCI, 2003; IoM, 2000; Buchman, 2006). The very few cases of manganese deficiency in humans have been induced in experimental conditions (Buchman, 2006). The EFSA considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Manganese contributes to the normal formation of connective tissue” (EFSA Journal 2010:8(10):1808).
SOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, and as such it is an important antioxidant defence in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen. SOD2 (Mn-SOD) is the isoenzyme of SOD present in mitochondria. Its synthesis is regulated by manganese through a mechanism of gene activation, and reduced activity of the enzyme has been shown in manganese deficiency in mice. Mice lacking Mn-SOD die a few days after birth owing to massive oxidative stress. Tissue Mn-SOD activity in-creases after exposure to environmental factors inducing an increase in free radicals (JHCI, 2003; Buchman, 2006). The EFSA considers that the following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Manganese contributes to the protection of cell constituents from oxidative damage” (EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):121).
Based on the scientific data and the clinical studies for the active ingredients used in Perfect Beauty Cellular, in combination with the clinical study conducted with the Lycolignol® -Complex contained in Perfect Beauty Anti Age, the conclusion can be drawn that Perfect Beauty Cellular helps to reduce obvious signs of cellulite and makes the skin appear smoother and firmer.
Author: Dr. Marc Schneider (Director of Business Development Consumer Healthcare);
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- Cellulite and its treatment; A. V. Rawlings; 2006 International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 28, 175–190
- Addition of Conjugated Linoleic Acid to a Herbal Anticellulite Pill; Lawrence Birnbaum, M.D.; Advances In Natural Therapy, Volume 18 No.5 September/October 2001
- Scientific Background Information on Clarinol™ CLA; Lipid Nutrition
- Caffeine’s mechanisms of action and its cosmetic use; A. Herman, A.P. Herman; Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2013;26:8–14
- Evaluation of the efficacy of a topical cosmetic slimming product combining tetrahydroxypropyl ethylenediamine, caffeine, carnitine, forskolin and retinol, in in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies; R. Roure, T. Oddos, A. Rossi, F. Viall and C. Bertin; International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2011, 33, 519-526
- EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1226
- EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1816
- EFSA Journal 2010:8(10):1732
- EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1211
- EFSA Journal 2010:8(10):1808
- EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):121
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